Wine Primary Sources

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Wine is a fermented, alcoholic beverage made primarily from grape juice, or sometimes the juice of other fruits.


Name Date Country Language English Translation Description Panels
Vitruvius on Architecture 30-15 BCE Rome Classical Latin Available This Roman discussion of architecture includes a lot of information on wine production.
De Re Rustica by Columella ~50 CE Rome Classical Latin 1745 translation, others exist. Roman farm manual, contains wine recipes.
Naturalis Historia by Pliny 79 CE Rome Classical Latin 1601 translation, [1855], others exist. this 20th century translation is more complete. A survey of the natural world, contains much information on wine.
Apicius de re coquinaria 300-400 CE Italy Latin available This late-antique cookbook contains a few wine recipes, including spiced and flavored wines. Conditum Paradoxumc
Geoponica 900-1000 CE Byzantine Empire Greek available A Byzantine farm manual, contains much detail on wine.
The Book of Kervynge 1508 CE England English (in English) A cookbook containing a recipe for Hippocras.
Maison rustique, or The countrey farme 1564 CE France French Period English Translation A comprehensive text on running a country estate.
The Closet of Sir Kenelme Digbie Kt. Opened 1669 CE England English (in English) Post-period, but likely based on period techniques. Comprehensive, and reasonably detailed. Contains mostly fruit wines.
[1]Wine and Medicine from Hippocrates to the Renaissance by Christopher Hoolihan Modern USA English Article: Wine and Medicine from Hippocrates to the Renaissance by Christopher Hoolihan